Present Perfect - Time
Todd: Has Bob arrived yet?
Katie: No, he hasn’t gotten here yet?
Todd: Has anyone tried to call him?
Katie: I don’t think anyone has.
Todd: Maybe he has overslept.
Katie: Or maybe he’s forgotten there’s a meeting.
Todd: Have you sent the report?
Katie: No, I haven’t.
Todd: Why haven’t you finished?
Katie: I haven’t had time to check the spelling.
Todd: Have you finished writing it?
Katie: Yes, I have. Almost done!
Todd: How long have you known Joe?
Katie: I’ve known him since high school.
Todd: Wow! That’s a long time.
Katie: Yeah, we been best friends for a while.
Todd: Have you seen him recently?
Katie: No, I haven’t seen him for some time.
Todd: Nice sweater. I haven’t seen it before.
Katie: Oh, this old thing. I’ve had it forever.
Todd: How come you haven’t worn it very much?
Katie: Well, it has been too hot to wear it.
Point 1 - Recent Activity
We use the present perfect for activities that just happened.
(Q) What have you done?
(A) I have made a few changes.
(N) I haven’t changed much.
(Q) Have you eaten yet?
(A) Yes, I’ve already eaten.
(N) No, I haven’t eaten yet.
Point 2 - Future Reference
If the action is over, then we usually use the past tense. If there is a possibility of it happening again, we use the present perfect.
(Q) Have you seen Sue?
(A) I just saw her.
(N) No, I haven’t seen her.
(Q) What did you do?
(A) I’ve made some changes.
(N) I didn’t change much.
Point 3 - Past to Future Reference
We use the present perfect to talk about action in the past that will continue into the future.
(Q) How long have you lived here?
(A) I’ve lived here for three years.
(N) I haven’t lived here that long.
(Q) Have you worked here long?
(A) I’ve worked here since 1999.
(N) I haven’t worked here as long as