Conversation 1 - What
Woman: So, how is the new software development project going?
Man: Good, from what I've been seeing, we should be finished within this month.
Woman: OK, what I really need, at this point, is a basic version to show clients by next week. By any chance, is that possible?
Man: Well, I will see what I can do, but no promises.
Woman: Really, you think you can do it?
Man: It won't be perfect, but I can get you a basic version of the software for promotional purposes.
Woman: Great. That's what I was hoping for.
Conversation 2 - Where
Woman: How is the film going?
Man: Good, but we need more money to film a few scenes.
Woman: Well, from where I'm standing, we can't give you anymore money. You are already over-budget.
Man: Yes, but we need to film in a new location. Where we are filming now just doesn't cut it.
Woman: I don't like where you're going with this. This is costing too much money.
Man: Look, I understand, but this next scene is where the movie really comes together. We really need it.
Woman: OK. I'll see what I can do, but this is the last time. Don't ask for more.
Man: Thank you. I really appreciate this.
Conversation 3 - How
Woman: And this is how we can turn sales into profits! And that is my presentation. Thank you for coming.
Man: That was a great presentation. I loved how you explained the data.
Woman: Oh, thank you. You never know how it will come across to the audience.
Man: Well, you deserve a lot of credit. Your style is very engaging, especially how you talk and how you use humor to make a point.
Woman: Well, thank you again. I am glad that it was well-received.
Man: Also, how you came up with the data was really interesting. Do you think you could discuss it over a cup of coffee?
Woman: I'd love to. I think there is a cafe downstairs.
Conversation 4 - Why
Man: Ms. Wilson, can you explain to me why I got a low score on my paper?
Woman: Well, the main reason is that you did not follow the topic. Did you read the instructions?
Man: Yes, but I didn't like it, so I wrote about why I love football so much.
Woman: Well, that is why you got a low grade. You have to follow the rules.
Man: Yeah, but why can't I write about what I want to write about.
Woman: Well, for one, it is not fair for other students.
Man: OK, I got it. I see your point.
Woman: For what it's worth, I did enjoy reading it.
Man: Thanks, but about my grade, can I rewrite the paper?
Woman: Yes, but you will need to get it to me by Friday.
Man: Thank you. I appreciate it.
Woman: Well, I look forward to your new paper. Why don't you write about why animals rights are important.?
Man: I will. Thanks so much!
Woman: Why students don't follow the rules is beyond me!
Conversation 5 – Who
Man: Who is our daughter talking to?
Woman: I am not sure who he is. She mentioned something about a new friend from work.
Man: Well, I don't like who she hangs out with.
Woman: Who she hangs out with is none of your business. She is 25 after all.
Man: Well, you know the old saying: it's not what you know but who you know!
Woman: Well, she should have the right to see whoever she likes.
Man: I know. I'm just being a dad.
Woman: And I'm just being a mom.
Man: Well, who you hand out with says a lot about you.
Conversation 6 - Whose
Man: Do you know whose desk this is?
Woman: I think that is Joan's desk.
Man: No, that's Joan's desk. The one that has two monitors is Joan's desk.
Woman: Hmm! Well then, I don't know whose it is then.
Man: Well, somebody must know who sits here.
Woman: Right, someone. Just not us.
A noun clause with a WH-word is just a simplified adjective clause
The thing that = what
I like the things that you are wearing
I live what you are wearing.
Where = the place where
This is the place where I work.
This is where I work.
Who = the person that
This is the person that I was talking about.
This is who I was talking about.
When = the time when
Talk about the time when you were young.
Talk about when you were young.
Why = the reason that
I don’t know the reason that he does that.
I don’t know why he does that.
How = the way that
I like the way that you dress.
I like how you dress.
A noun clause can act as the object of a sentence.
I like what you are wearing.
This is who I was talking about.
I don’t know where you are going with this.
Please explain why you did this.
The noun clause can act as the complement object.
This is what I know.
This is where I live.
More money is what you need.
That man is who I was talking about.
A noun clause can take the shape of the subject.
What you eat says a lot about your health.
Where you work depends on your education level.
Who you know does not matter.
Why he acts that way is a mystery.
A noun clause can go after a preposition.
From what I know, he should be here.
It depends on how much money you have.
Let’s talk about why most people believe in miracles.
I am tired of how he acts.
Grammar Listening Practice
He's the guy who I was telling you about.
Well, I will see what I can do, but no promises.
So, I assume that all are invited?
I’ve known him since high school.
That's too bad. I think you would have enjoyed it.