Non-Defining Relative Clauses
Man: How is your new apartment?
Woman: Good, but it’s very noisy, so I can’t get a good night’s sleep, which is exhausting.
Man: That’s terrible. That would stress me out. Where is it exactly?
Woman: It is near the station, which gets pretty noisy at night.
Man: What about on the weekends?
Woman: It’s not much quieter then. There is a night market, which brings in lots of tourists.
Man: I know how you feel. My old workplace, which was near an airport, was always noisy.
Woman: Yeah, there is not much I can do about it now. I just have to deal with it.
Man: Well, hopefully things will turn for the better in the long run.
Woman: Thanks, I hope so.
Man: What are you looking at?
Woman: This is my new smart watch, which I am totally addicted to.
Man: It looks high-tech. What does it do?
Woman: It tracks my bio-metrics, which are immediately analyzed on the app and then displayed on the screen.
Man: Oh, really. That sounds cool. How are you doing?
Woman: Not bad. It turns out I am pretty healthy, but it is still hard to interpret all the data.
Man: Those watches are so trendy these days. I want a gadget like that.
Woman: You should get one. There’re lots of fun.
Man: So, how are things in your department?
Woman: Not good. I have a new role, which I hate.
Man: Oh, what is your new role?
Woman: I am now in charge of assemble line efficiency, which means I must make sure everything is working as efficiently as possible.
Man: That sounds like a role for management.
Woman: It was, but our superior quit unexpectedly, so they gave the job to me.
Man: That sounds like a lot of pressure.
Woman: It is. I am totally stressed right now.
Woman: So, how are things going down at the factory?
Man: Well, the new machines, which I told you about last week, are working really well.
Woman: What about the time frame? Can we meet our production deadline?
Man: Well, the new staff, which we just hired last week, should be able to increase production.
Woman: Well, our recent commercial, which has done really well, could mean a strong demand for the product.
Man: So basically, we need to increase production fast.
Woman: Yes, you do, which means you will be working a lot of overtime, but I need you to come through on this.
Man: Well, we have a track record, which you know is pretty good, so I am confident we can do this.
Woman: That’s good to hear. I know I can count on you.
Non-defining Relative Clauses
- I have a new puppy, which is very cute.
- I recently bought a new computer, which is the latest model.
- She walked into the house, which was painted yellow.
- Sally, who is our neighbor, recently got married.
Point 2 : Non-defining relative clauses are usually followed by a comma (,) and start with a relative pronoun (which, who, whose, where etc.)
Main clause + , + relative pronoun + verb + object
- John works for 10 hours a day, which makes him too tired to exercise.
- The captain praised his soldiers, who were very brave.
- He was fixing his car, which was damaged in an accident.
- Bob is not on time today, which is out of character for him.
Point 3 :Non-defining relative clauses can also come in the middle of the main clause. In this case, it starts and ends with a comma (,).
Main clause + , + relative clause + , + main clause continued
- My aunt, whose son recently graduated, is visiting me next week.
- My mother, who is 60 years old, recently went on holiday with her friends.
- I drove to London, where my sister lives, to buy my wedding dress.
- My company, which just got more funding, is not hiring lots of staff.
- He did not say anything, which is odd for him.
(Omitted - Not saying anything = same subject)
- He did not say anything, which Marsha thought was odd.
(Included - Marsha thought = new subject/verb)
- She bought a leather dress, which is now very fashionable.
(Omitted = leather dress = same subject)
- She bought a leather dress, which she plans to wear to the party.
(Included - she plans = new subject/verb)
- My childhood home, which was dear to me, was recently sold.
- The children played with the puppy, which was adorable.
- I asked my friend, who is an expert at drawing, to help me make the card.
- The news reported on a storm in Bali, which damaged many homes.
Grammar Listening Practice
Just turn right and you should see it.
Neither Joe nor his wife can make it.
There is a night market, which brings in lots of tourists.
Do you know when we start?
Yes, I just backed it up on our remote server.