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Vocabulary Quiz
contamination • polythene • fertility
second hand • purification • tannery • mandatory
  1. She uses the bags from the supermarket as garbage bags in her house.
  2. You can actually see the in the air.
  3. I bought this bicycle a few years ago and I love it.
  4. He was always sick when he worked in the .
  5. The process we use is a water pump.
  6. When he lived in his parents' house it was for him to come home before midnight.
  7. The soil has been used for too many years and lost its .
Comprehension Quiz
Answer the following questions about the interview.
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977 Enam's Green Concerns
Enam talks about some problems and possible solutions for his country.

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Vocabulary notes (text only) explain key vocabulary and phrases from the interview.

soil contamination


The soil contamination is quite bad.

Soil contamination occurs when we dispose of dangerous chemicals in the ground so we can't grow plants or live on the land. Notice the following:

  1. Clean up costs for soil contamination are quite high.
  2. It's dangerous for humans to eat plants or animals that have been affected by soil contamination.



A lot of polythene bags can be seen on the beach.

Polythene is a thin, light, soft plastic, often used to make shopping bags. Here are two samples:

  1. During the 1980's, polythene bags replaced paper bags in most major US supermarkets.
  2. Reusable eco-friendly shopping bags are not only a great alternative to polythene; they've also become a fashion trend.

loses its fertility


Soil loses its fertility.

When land loses its fertility, we are unable to grow fruits or vegetables. Notice the following samples"

  1. Over farming causes the land to lose its fertility.
  2. Once the soil loses its fertility, it can take many years to recover.

second hand


Second hand cars are so much cheaper than new ones.

We use the phrase 'second hand' to talk about something that was used in the past by someone before us. Here are some samples:

  1. His first car was an old second hand Volkswagen Beetle.
  2. I prefer second hand blue jeans. They're softer and more comfortable.

purification process


There are many stages in the purification process.

We use a purification process to remove harmful substances from something. Notice the sample sentences:

  1. The modern water purification process removes parasites and bacteria from drinking water.
  2. In the past, the most common water purification process was boiling.



Because of tanneries in the city, pollution is a problem.

A tannery is a place where we make leather from the skins of animals. The process uses many dangerous chemicals. Here are two samples:

  1. Wastewater from tanneries caused serious soil contamination in the area.
  2. Farmers are unable to use the land where the old tanneries once stood.



In the US, it's mandatory to have auto insurance if you drive.

The word 'Mandatory' means something that must be done or is required by law. 

  1. In most countries, it's mandatory for foreigners to carry a passport at all times.
  2. The government imposed mandatory restrictions on toxic waste disposal.