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Advanced English Grammar (C1) Lesson 2 of 12

Non-Defining Relative Clause

Watch four videos using non-defining relatiave clauses in conversation.

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Conversation 1

Man: How is your new apartment?
Woman: Good, but it’s very noisy, so I can’t get a good night’s sleep, which is exhausting.
Man: That’s terrible. That would stress me out. Where is it exactly?
Woman: It is near the station, which gets pretty noisy at night.
Man: What about on the weekends?
Woman: It’s not much quieter then. There is a night market, which brings in lots of tourists.
Man: I know how you feel. My old workplace, which was near an airport, was always noisy.
Woman: Yeah, there is not much I can do about it now. I just have to deal with it.
Man: Well, hopefully things will turn for the better in the long run.
Woman: Thanks, I hope so.

Conversation 2

Man: What are you looking at?
Woman: This is my new smart watch, which I am totally addicted to.
Man: It looks high-tech. What does it do?
Woman: It tracks my bio-metrics, which are immediately analyzed and then displayed on the screen
Man: Oh, really. That sounds cool. How are you doing?
Woman: Not bad. It turns out I am pretty healthy, but it is still hard to interpret all the data.
Man: Those watches are so trendy these days. I want a gadget like that.
Woman: You should get one. There’re lots of fun.

Conversation 3

Man: So, how are things in your department?
Woman: Not good. I have a new role, which I hate.
Man: Oh, what is your new role?
Woman: I am not in charge of assemble line efficiency, which means I must make sure everything is working as efficiently as possible.
Man: That sounds like a role for management.
Woman: It was, but our superior quit unexpectedly, so they gave the job to me.
Man: That sounds like a lot of pressure.
Woman: It is. I am totally stressed right now.

Conversation 4

Woman: So, how are things going down ad the factory?
Man:Well, the new machines, which I told you about last week, are working really well.
Woman: What about the time frame? Can we meet our production deadline?
Man: Well, the new staff, which we just hired last week, should be able to increase production.
Woman: Well, our recent commercial, which has done really well, could mean a strong demand for the product.
Man: So basically, we need to increase production fast.
Woman: Yes, you do, which means you will be working a lot of overtime, but I need you to come through on this.
Man: Well, we have a track record, which you know is pretty good, so I am confident we can do this.
Woman: That’s good to hear. I know I can count on you.

Vocabulary - Key Words and Phrases

Conversation 1

Good night’s sleep - an expression meaning to sleep well without interruption.
Exhausting - extremely tiring.
Stress me out - to make someone feel very anxious or stressed.
Pretty noisy - quite loud, enough to be bothersome.
Brings in - attracts or causes to come.
Turn for the better - to improve or become better.

Conversation 2

Totally addicted to - colloquial way of saying very fond of or frequently using something.
High-tech - involving the latest technology.
Tracks my biometrics - monitors physiological data.
Analyzed - examined data methodically.
Trendy - fashionable or up-to-date.
Gadget - a small mechanical or electronic device or tool.

Conversation 3

In charge of - responsible for managing or overseeing.
Assembly line efficiency - the productivity of a manufacturing operation.
Superior - a person who is higher in rank or position.
Quit unexpectedly - to resign or leave a job suddenly without prior indication.
A lot of pressure - a great deal of stress or burden.
Totally stressed - extremely anxious or overwhelmed.

Conversation 4

Going down at the factory - colloquial way of asking what is happening in the factory.
Track record - A hisotry of doing something well.
Time frame - the period during which something is supposed to happen.
Production deadline - the latest time by which the production must be completed.
Increase production - to produce more goods.
Commercial - an advertisement on television or radio.
Strong demand - a high need or desire for a product by consumers.
Count on - Rely on, or depend on.

Grammar Notes

Point 1 : A defining clause acts like an adjective to describe something.
  1. I have a car that is electric.
  2. I have an uncle who repairs watches.
Point 2 : A non-defining clause gives extra information.
  1. She has a nice house, which was just built.
  2. We went to dinner with Jeff, whom I think you met before.
Point 3 : A non-defining clause uses commas to separate the clause from the modified sentence.
  1. My friend, whom you met before, is coming to the party.
  2. We study Arabic, which is very hard to learn.
Point 4 : A non-defining clause uses the relative pronoun, "which," for things or ideas:
  1. My school, which just opened, does not have many students.
  2. He quit his job, which surprised us all.
Point 5 : For people, use "who," when the modified word is the subject of the clause. Use "whom," for the object.
  1. I work with Jeff, who graduated from Harvard.
  2. We invited Susan, whom you met before.
Answer these questions about the interview.

Gap Fill: Complete the conversation with the correct word!

More Grammar Conversations for Intermediate Students (B1)

Grammar Listening Practice

C1-01 Relative Clauses
I really like the shirt that you are wearing.

C1-02 Non-Defining Relative Clause
Bob, whom you met last year, will come to party.

C1-03 Noun Clause
What I do is none of your business.

C1-04 Present Participle Clause
Who is the woman sitting next to Joe?

C1-05 Past Participle Clause
There is a car parked outside.

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